Through electric stimulation, Duchenne determined which muscles were responsible for different facial expressions. Charles Darwin would later republish some of these photographs in his own work on the subject, which compared facial expressions in humans to those in animals. A facial expression results from one or more motions or positions of the muscles of the face. They are closely associated with our emotions. In the midth century most anthropologists believed that facial expressions were entirely learned and could therefore differ among cultures, but studies eventually with people of the Papua New Guinea highlands who had not been in contact with the outside world have supported Darwin's belief to a large degree, particularly for expressions of anger, sadness, fear, surprise, disgust, contempt and happiness.
The muscles of facial expression and their function - ImproveFP
One of the most striking contrasts between a human face and that of a rat, horse, or dog, for example, is the variety and subtlety of human facial expression. This is made possible by a complex array of small muscles that insert in the. Gluteus maximus. Abductor pollicis longus. Semispinalis cervicis.
顏面表情肌(Muscles of Facial Expression)
Facial muscles are different to the muscles in the rest of the body because they attach to the skin of the face as well as attaching to each other. For example, the biceps muscle contracts to bend the elbow, and the triceps muscle contracts to straighten it again. Because the facial muscles attach to the skin they can move in any direction.
The depressor labii inferioris also depressor labii inferioris muscle , latin: musculus depressor labii inferioris is a facial muscle of the chin area that pulls the lower lip downward and forward. The depressor labii inferioris originates from the oblique line of the base of the mandible. Upon activation the depressor labii inferioris muscle pulls the lower lip downward and forward. The depressor labii inferioris is innervated by the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve CN VII.